The People Of The United States
The phrase People of the United States has sometimes been understood to mean citizens. The reasoning therein is that if the political community speaking for itself in the Preamble to the Constitution includes only citizens, it specifically, in some way, excludes non-citizens. It has also been thought to mean all individuals who fall under the sovereign jurisdiction of the US government.
The phrase can be seen as affirming that the national government the Constitution created derives its sovereignty from the people. It can also be seen as confirming that the government under the Constitution was intended to govern and protect the people directly, as one society, rather than governing only the states as political units.
The Preamble of the Constitution: The Preamble of the Constitution of the United States begins with the often-quoted phrase, We the People.
Although in some ways the meaning and implications of the Preamble may be contested, at the least it can be said that it demonstrates that the US federal government was not created as an agreement between or among a coalition of the states. Instead, it was the product of the People with the power to govern them directly, unlike the government under the Articles of Confederation, which only governed them indirectly through rules imposed on the states.
Why Does The Constitution Begin With We The People
There is a lot of focus right now on the 27 amendments to the United States Constitution, especially those related to modern governance and the succession of power. But, we cant overlook the importance of the beginning of the document starting with We the People. As this section is known, the preamble acts as an introduction to the laws and clauses within. It serves as a declaration from the Founding Fathers to ordain and establish all that lies within.
However, the first words dont appear to fit with this notion of those higher power figures making this declaration to the world. It begins, We the People of the United States. This term has taken on a life of its own ever since, but why did those in charge of creating the Constitution decide to use it?
Cultural Assimilation Of American Indians
The cultural assimilation of American Indians was an assimilation effort by the United States to transform American Indian culture to European-American culture between the years of 1790 and 1920. With increased waves of immigration from Europe, there was growing public support among US citizens for education to encourage a standard set of cultural values and practices that the majority of citizens would hold in common. Education was viewed as the primary method in the acculturation process for minorities.
George Washington and Henry Knox were the first to propose cultural transformation of American Indians. A common sentiment held by many, including Washington and Knox, was the Eurocentric belief that American Indians were inferior to Europeans, or that they were personally equal but their society was inferior and uncivilized. Stemming from this belief Washington advocated for so-called advancement of American Indian society and formulated a policy to encourage a civilizing process.
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We The People In The United States
In 1787, 11 years after the Declaration of Independence proclaimed that all men are created equal, the US Constitution was adopted. It begins with this preamble:
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.1
Women’s suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony on her 50th birthday.
Who is included in We the People? This is a question that has been debated throughout American history. William H. Hastie, the first black federal judge in the United States , wrote: Democracy is a process, not a static condition. It is becoming, rather than being. It can be easily lost, but is never finally won. Much of the history of the United States reflects this ongoing process, as individuals and groups have attempted to make the country better reflect the democratic ideals expressed in its founding documents.
In 1776, Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia were the only states to limit the right to vote to white men, and no northern state limited suffrage on the basis of skin color or race. After 1800, every state that entered the Union, except Maine, denied free African American men the right to vote.
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The Declaration Of Independence And Its Influence On The Constitution
In honor of the anniversary of the ratification of the Constitution, June 21, and the upcoming Independence Day holiday on July 4 todays episode celebrates the influence of the Declaration of Independence on the Constitution and constitutional movements throughout history. We explore how the Declaration influenced the drafting of the Constitution itself the abolitionist movement and Abraham Lincolns conception of a new birth of freedom after the Civil War the Seneca Falls Convention and the campaign for womens suffrage the Progressive movement and the New Deal Dr. King and the Civil Rights revolution through to the modern conservative originalist movement as well as progressivism today. Host Jeffrey Rosen is joined by Danielle Allen James Bryan Conant University Professor at Harvard and author of the book Our Declaration: A Reading of the Declaration of Independence in Defense of Equality and Ken Kersch professor of political science at Boston College and author of Conservatives and the Constitution: Imagining Constitutional Restoration in the Heyday of American Liberalism.
Jeffrey Rosen is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Constitution Center, the only institution in America chartered by Congress to disseminate information about the United States Constitution on a nonpartisan basis.
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Why Does The Preamble To The Constitution Begin With We The People
There are different theories as to why one of the most important documents in the US begins this way. One view is that this was an attempt to appear relatable, with the representatives referring to themselves as American people like everyone else.
Another is that this was an attempt to show that the US people had the most power, and it was, therefore, their document. Whatever the reason, it is interesting to look at the deeper meanings of the word people and the importance of this statement.
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Slaves During The Revolutionary War
During the American Revolutionary War, both the British and American governments, in principle, offered freedom and resettlement to slaves willing to fight for them. Free black people in the North and South fought on both sides of the Revolution, though most fought for the colonial rebels. Many African-American slaves became politically active during these years in support of the King, as they thought Great Britain might abolish slavery in the colonies at the end of the conflict. Tens of thousands used the turmoil of war to escape from slavery.
White American advocates of independence were commonly called out in Britain for their hypocritical calls for freedom while maintaining slavery in the colonies. Despite their criticism, however, the British continued to permit the slave trade in other parts of the world.
Cell Phone Unlocking Bill
In February 2013, a petition started by OpenSignal co-founder and digital rights activist Sina Khanifar reached the 100,000-signature threshold required for a response from the White House. Two weeks later, the Obama administration issued a response urging the FCC and Congress to legalize cell phone unlocking. A year later, Congress passed the Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act, the first piece of legislation driven by an online petition. The bill was signed into law by President Obama on August 1, 2014.
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Magna Carta: Muse And Mentormagna Carta And The Us Constitution
Sections:Magna Carta Comes to AmericaKing John in History and MemoryRebellion and the Great CharterLincoln Magna CartaConfirmations by Kings and ParliamentInterpreting the Rule of LawRights of Englishmen in British AmericaNo Taxation Without RepresentationDue Process of LawTrial by JuryWrit of Habeas CorpusExecutive PowerMagna Carta in Culture
Proposed Articles of Amendment to the Federal Constitution , September 14, 1789. . New York: Thomas Greenleaf, 1789. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress
Magna Carta exercised a strong influence both on the United States Constitution and on the constitutions of the various states. However, its influence was shaped by what eighteenth-century Americans believed Magna Carta to signify. Magna Carta was widely held to be the peopleâs reassertion of rights against an oppressive ruler, a legacy that captured American distrust of concentrated political power. In part because of this tradition, most of the state constitutions included declarations of rights intended to guarantee individual citizens a list of protections and immunities from the state government. The United States also adopted the Bill of Rights, in part, due to this political conviction.
Many broader American constitutional principles have their roots in an eighteenth-century understanding of Magna Carta, such as the theory of representative government, the idea of a supreme law, and judicial review.
Representation And The Three
One of the most contentious slavery-related questions during the drafting of the Constitution was whether slaves would be counted as part of the population in determining representation in the Congress, or if they would be considered property not entitled to representation. Delegates from states with large populations of slaves argued that slaves should be considered people in determining representation. Simultaneously, they argued slaves should be considered property if the new government were to levy taxes on the states based on population. Delegates from states where slavery had become rare argued the opposite: that slaves should be included in taxation, but not in determining representation.
Finally, delegates James Wilson and Robert Sherman proposed the Three-Fifths Compromise, which the convention eventually adopted. This final compromise established the policy of counting slaves as three-fifths of a person. This reduced the slave states power relative to the original Southern proposals, but increased it over the Northern proposal.
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Or Perhaps They Werent Talking About Themselves At All
Another way to look at the term we the people is that the state representatives involved werent talking about themselves at all. Instead of making themselves relatable as fellow citizens of the US, they may have referred to the fact that, ultimately, the USs people have the greatest power.
The final constitution could not be credited to 12 or 13 men only, and it couldnt be perceived as something derived solely from the coalition of the states. They couldnt turn to the nation and say, We, the representatives of the states of America, have decided how to run this country.. It had to be credited to the US as a whole. The constitution could only gain sovereignty from the USs people, so it was, therefore, the people of all 13 states that had to give that declaration to ordain and establish it.
The decision is little more than a gesture. While it is true that it is the people of the US that will elect the representatives and leaders, and that should have the most power, in the end, the blueprint for the system of government was the result of that handful of representatives.
Popular Nature Of The Constitution
The Constitution is an act of the People. However, because it represents a general social contract, there are limits on the ability of individual citizens to pursue legal claims arising from it. For example, if a law that violates the Constitution were enacted, it would not be possible for any individual to challenge the statutes constitutionality in court. Instead, only an individual negatively affected by the unconstitutional statute could bring such a challenge. In this same vein, courts will not answer hypothetical questions about a statutes constitutionality. The judiciary does not have the authority to invalidate laws solely because they are unconstitutional, but it may declare a law unconstitutional if its operation would injure a persons interests.
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Madison’s Copy Of The Proposed Bill Of Rights
The amendments to the Constitution that Congress proposed in 1791 were strongly influenced by state declarations of rights, particularly the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776, which incorporated a number of the protections of the 1689 English Bill of Rights and Magna Carta. The fifth through tenth articles of the proposed amendments, which correspond to the fourth through eighth amendments to the U.S. Constitution as ratified, embody this tradition most directly, guaranteeing speedy justice, a jury trial, proportionate punishment, and due process of law.
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The People Of The Us Vs The Citizens Of The Us
Finally, we have to look at the word people here rather than the word citizens. Some suggest that the term people of the United States only refers to those that have citizenship status. In other words, this would reinforce the idea that the rights and clauses within are only related to those with legal status in the country. However, the term people s broadness is also a great way of ensuring that everyone from each state is included. That means men, women, and children from all aspects of society.
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Become A Book Club Donor
All three levels of We the People the Citizen and the Constitution have a textbook that supports the learning. The middle and high school levels also have interactive online options. The Nevada Center for Civic Engagement strives to provide teachers who use the We the People program in their classroom with at least one classroom set of books. One classroom set can range from $488 for an elementary class, $599 for a middle school class, and $721 for a high school class. Individual books range from $20-30. We are in the process of working out options for digital textbooks as well.
Journal Of The Continental Congress
When the first Continental Congress met in September and October 1774, it drafted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances claiming for the colonists the liberties guaranteed to them under âthe principles of the English constitution, and the several charters or compacts.â The colonists sought the preservation of their self-government, freedom from taxation without representation, the right to a trial by a jury of oneâs countrymen, and their enjoyment of âlife, liberty and propertyâ free from arbitrary interference from the crown. On this title page is a symbol of unity adopted by the congress: twelve arms reaching out to grasp a column that is topped by a liberty cap. The base of the column reads âMagna Carta.â
Journal of the Proceedings of the Congress, Held at Philadelphia, September 5, 1774. Philadelphia: William and Thomas Bradford, 1774. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress
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We The People Originally Written By Gouverneur Morris
We The People”We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
Bradlee Professor Of Government And The Press
1) Go to the We The Peoplesite.
2) Call McGraw Hill at 800-338-3987, ext 3
Note: The new edition of We the People includes, for example, Joe Bidens election as president, Amy Comey Barretts Supreme Court confirmation, and the political, social, and economic impact of COVID-19. To order: Thomas E. Patterson, We the People, 14e , ISBN: 9781260395914. For preparing your syllabus, the can be found here. A draft syllabus can be found here.
Note: The new edition includes, for example, Joe Bidens election as president, Amy Comey Barretts Supreme Court confirmation, and the political, social, and economic impact of COVID-19. To order: Thomas E. Patterson, We the People, 14e , ISBN: 9781260395914.
We The People Was Necessary At The Time Of The Creation Of The Constitution
The Constitutional Convention was a way of bringing together representatives of all states to Philadelphia to create a new government form although Rhode Island did not send anyone. The aim was to create a government that could oversee the United States people on a more national level without holding so much power that it would put citizens fundamental rights at risk.
This lead to the checks and balances approach and the distinction between federal and state law. It was a requirement that all states had to give full faith and credit to other states laws and procedures. Therefore, everyone was all in this together at a national level while retaining personal freedoms and dealing with state laws.