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John Locke Two Treatises Of Government

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Of Paternal Political And Despotical Power Considered Together

17. Constitutional Government: Locke’s Second Treatise (13-19)

Sect. 169. THOUGH I have had occasion to speak of these separately before, yetthe great mistakes of late about government, having, as I suppose, arisen fromconfounding these distinct powers one with another, it may not, perhaps, beamiss to consider them here together.

Sect. 173. Nature gives the first of these, viz. paternal power to parents forthe benefit of their children during their minority, to supply their want ofability, and understanding how to manage their property. Voluntary agreement gives the second, viz.political power to governors for the benefit of their subjects, to secure themin the possession and use of their properties. And forfeiture gives the thirddespotical power to lords for their own benefit, over those who are stripped ofall property.

Sect. 174. He, that shall consider the distinct rise and extent, and thedifferent ends of these several powers, will plainly see, that paternal powercomes as far short of that of the magistrate, as despotical exceeds it andthat absolute dominion, however placed, is so far from being one kind of civilsociety, that it is as inconsistent with it, as slavery is with property.Paternal power is only where minority makes the child incapable to manage hisproperty political, where men have property in their own disposal anddespotical, over such as have no property at all.

Comparing Locke’s Two Treatises Of Government And Leviathan

The state of nature serves as a portrayal of the human being prior to the contemporary state or society, being utilized by social contract theorists to present their understanding of both human nature and the development of government. John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, two iconic seventeenth-century writers, are among many to have submitted versions of such conditions in their works, Two Treatises of Government, and Leviathan. Although there may appear to be points of similarity, their differing accounts of pre-societal man is largely responsible for their contrasting stances on the emergence of the modern state and its sources of legitimate power. Each writer provides a separate lens through which readers can investigate their understandings of

Of The State Of Nature

Sect. 4. TO understand political power right, and derive it from its original,we must consider, what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state ofperfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions andpersons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, withoutasking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man.

A state also of equality, wherein all the power and jurisdiction is reciprocal,no one having more than another there being nothing more evident, than thatcreatures of the same species and rank, promiscuously born to all the sameadvantages of nature, and the use of the same faculties, should also be equalone amongst another without subordination or subjection, unless the lord andmaster of them all should, by any manifest declaration of his will, set oneabove another, and confer on him, by an evident and clear appointment, anundoubted right to dominion and sovereignty.

Sect. 5. This equality of men by nature, the judicious Hooker looks upon as soevident in itself, and beyond all question, that he makes it the foundation ofthat obligation to mutual love amongst men, on which he builds the duties theyowe one another, and from whence he derives the great maxims of justice andcharity. His words are,

Sect. 15. To those that say, there were never any men in the state of nature, Iwill not only oppose the authority of the judicious Hooker, Eccl. Pol. lib. i.sect. 10, where he says,

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Late Modern And Contemporary

Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other combined with the to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in protected by the paved the way for the establishment of the . Domestically it drove the , a period of profound change in the and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development. The opening of Northwest England’s in 1761 ushered in the . In 1825 the world’s first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway the opened to the public.

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the , and trade within the British Empire as well as the standing of the British military and navy was prestigious. Technologically, this era saw many innovations that proved key to the United Kingdom’s power and prosperity. Political agitation at home from radicals such as the and the enabled legislative reform and . described the as a “leisurely time when women wore and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag.”

John Locke’s Purpose Of Government

Two Treatises of Government by John Locke (English) Paperback Book Free ...

John Locke created theories that are the basis of the United States government. He hypothesized about what would happen if no government existed, and he said that all humans are born with the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. John Locke said that humans are all born with three natural rights, but he did not mention the right to quality of life, nor the government ‘s duty to protect it.

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What Contributions Did John Locke Make To Political Theory

In political theory, or political philosophy, John Locke refuted the theory of the divine right of kings and argued that all persons are endowed with natural rights to life, liberty, and property and that rulers who fail to protect those rights may be removed by the people, by force if necessary.

Of The Beginning Of Political Societies

Sect. 95. MEN being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal, andindependent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to thepolitical power of another, without his own consent. The only way whereby anyone divests himself of his natural liberty, and puts on the bonds of civilsociety, is by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a community fortheir comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongst another, in a secureenjoyment of their properties, and a greater security against any, that are notof it. This any number of men may do, because it injures not the freedom of therest they are left as they were in the liberty of the state of nature. Whenany number of men have so consented to make one community or government, theyare thereby presently incorporated, and make one body politic, wherein themajority have a right to act and conclude the rest.

Sect. 100. To this I find two objections made. First, That there are noinstances to be found in story, of a company of men independent, and equal oneamongst another, that met together, and in this way began and set up agovernment.

Secondly, It is impossible of right, that men should do so, because all menbeing born under government, they are to submit to that, and are not at libertyto begin a new one.

The other objection I find urged against the beginning of polities, in the wayI have mentioned, is this, viz.

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Government’s Role In The State Of Nature

Locke acknowledged that if we view peoples own bodies and work as their own property, things can quickly get messy. For example, if someone builds a house and there are multiple people working on it or providing ownership, who owns it? Locke concluded that government is needed to maintain order and create laws that would help clarify ownership to protect property. Without stability, conflicts about property will become violent and lead to war. Thus, government is necessary for setting laws to maintain order and peace in the state of nature.

Locke was concerned about governments growing too powerful and abusive. He supported a separated government that had separate branches that helped keep each other in check.

How Did John Locke Influence The Design Of Us Government

15. Constitutional Government: Locke’s Second Treatise (1-5)

John Lockes political theory directly influenced the U.S. Declaration of Independence in its assertion of natural individual rights and its grounding of political authority in the consent of the governed. Locke also advocated a of executive, legislative, and judicial powers, a feature of the form of government established in the U.S. Constitution.

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Compare And Contrast John Locke And Thomas Hobbes

. Furthermore, Locke believed absolute monarchy, which by some men is counted the only government in the world, is inconsistent with civil society because those who gave the consent to be governed would never willingly choose to follow a leading body that is more crooked than the state of nature that were set by God. . When the government becomes forceful and tyrant, Locke believes people should then rise themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected .

Of The Extent Of The Legislative Power

(*The lawful power of making laws to command whole politic societies of men,belonging so properly unto the same intire societies, that for any prince orpotentate of what kind soever upon earth, to exercise the same of himself, andnot by express commission immediately and personally received from God, or elseby authority derived at the first from their consent, upon whose persons theyimpose laws, it is no better than mere tyranny. Laws they are not thereforewhich public approbation hath not made so. Hookers Eccl. Pol. l. i.sect. 10.

Of this point therefore we are to note, that such men naturally have no fulland perfect power to command whole politic multitudes of men, therefore utterlywithout our consent, we could in such sort be at no mans commandmentliving. And to be commanded we do consent, when that society, whereof we be apart, hath at any time before consented, without revoking the same after by thelike universal agreement. Laws therefore human, of what kind so ever, areavailable by consent. Ibid.)

Sect. 135. Though the legislative, whether placed in one or more, whether it bealways in being, or only by intervals, though it be the supreme power in everycommonwealth yet:

To constrain men to any thing inconvenient doth seem unreasonable. Ibid. l. i.sect. 10.)

Sect. 142. These are the bounds which the trust, that is put in them by thesociety, and the law of God and nature, have set to the legislative power ofevery commonwealth, in all forms of government.

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Of The Forms Of A Common

Sect. 132. THE majority having, as has been shewed, upon mens firstuniting into society, the whole power of the community naturally in them, mayemploy all that power in making laws for the community from time to time, andexecuting those laws by officers of their own appointing and then the form ofthe government is a perfect democracy: or else may put the power of making lawsinto the hands of a few select men, and their heirs or successors and then itis an oligarchy: or else into the hands of one man, and then it is a monarchy:if to him and his heirs, it is an hereditary monarchy: if to him only for life,but upon his death the power only of nominating a successor to return to them an elective monarchy. And so accordingly of these the community may makecompounded and mixed forms of government, as they think good. And if thelegislative power be at first given by the majority to one or more persons onlyfor their lives, or any limited time, and then the supreme power to revert tothem again when it is so reverted, the community may dispose of it again anewinto what hands they please, and so constitute a new form of government: forthe form of government depending upon the placing the supreme power, which isthe legislative, it being impossible to conceive that an inferior power shouldprescribe to a superior, or any but the supreme make laws, according as thepower of making laws is placed, such is the form of the commonwealth.

John Locke’s Two Treatises Of Government: Of The Ends Of Political

Macat Library: An Analysis of John Locke

John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government: “Of the Ends of Political Society and Government,” sections 123-131 and David Hume: “Of the Liberty of the Press” are both concerned with the importance of securing liberty within a governed statefor the individual and for the press, respectively. They examine a narrowed subject, but they share a common interest in the broader concept of promoting liberty and its value to a successful society.identify 1 statement or passage from Locke’s “Two Treatises of Government” and 1 from Hume’s “Of the Liberty of the Press” that can be directly connected.Basically, put these two authors “in conversation with each other.” Discuss how both statements/passages show an agreement between Locke and Hume about what it means to have proper liberty.Be sure to use quotation and parenthetical citation within your response to provide supportive textual evidence.

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Two Treatises Of Government: John Locke

John Locke is a famous Enlightenment philosopher, now known as the Father of Liberalism. His writings, including theTwo Treatises of Government, influenced other famous philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant.

While John Locke and his Two Treatises of Government are well-known today and regarded as one of the most influential texts on the American Revolution, it was not widely published in England when it first came out. Its translation into French exposed it to French philosophers like Rousseau, who then inspired Founding Fathers like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. It wasnt until the American Revolution that it became known as an influential, foundational document.

A portrait of John Locke. Source: Wikimedia Commons CC-PD-Mark: Author, John Greenhill

What Contributions Did John Locke Make To Epistemology

In epistemology , John Locke argued against the existence of innate ideas by showing how all except trifling human ideas may be derived from sensation or reflection and how knowledge may be defined in terms of the perception of agreement or connections between ideas.

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Abusive Monarchies And The Social Contract

Many of the issues that Locke wrote about with abusive monarchs and tyrants were still happening in the 18th century, but this time, it was the American colonies that were bearing the brunt rather than the British people. The complaints from the colonies about stiff taxes without even being able to vote or have representation in parliament reflected the idea that England was violating its social contract with the colonies.

Manuscripts Books And Treatises


Locke was an assiduous book collector and notetaker throughout his life. By his death in 1704, Locke had amassed a library of more than 3,000 books, a significant number in the seventeenth century. Unlike some of his contemporaries, Locke took care to catalogue and preserve his library, and his will made specific provisions for how his library was to be distributed after his death. Locke’s will offered Lady Masham the choice of “any four folios, eight quartos and twenty books of less volume, which she shall choose out of the books in my Library.” Locke also gave six titles to his good friend Anthony Collins, but Locke bequeathed the majority of his collection to his cousin Peter King and to Lady Masham’s son, Francis Cudworth Masham.

Many of the books still contain Locke’s signature, which he often made on the pastedowns of his books. Many also include Locke’s .

  • The Quaker William Penn: An address to Protestants of all perswasions
  • The explorer Francis Drake: The world encompassed by Sir Francis Drake
  • The scientist Robert Boyle: A discourse of things above reason
  • The bishop and historian Thomas Sprat: The history of the Royal-Society of London

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Evolution Of Core Beliefs

Core beliefs of classical liberals included new ideas âwhich departed from both the older idea of and from the later concept of society as a of . Classical liberals believed that individuals are “egoistic, coldly calculating, essentially inert and atomistic” and that society is no more than the sum of its individual members.

Classical liberals agreed with that government had been created by individuals to protect themselves from each other and that the purpose of government should be to minimize conflict between individuals that would otherwise arise in a . These beliefs were complemented by a belief that labourers could be best motivated by financial incentive. This belief led to the passage of the , which limited the provision of social assistance, based on the idea that are the mechanism that most efficiently leads to wealth. Adopting ‘s population theory, they saw poor urban conditions as inevitable, believed population growth would outstrip food production and thus regarded that consequence desirable because starvation would help limit population growth. They opposed any income or wealth redistribution, believing it would be dissipated by the lowest orders.

John Locke’s Influence On The American Revolution Essay

The Enlightenment Philosophers had a direct impact on the American Revolution and French Revolution. These philosophers helped influence the creation of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man. The Enlightenment was the source of all philosophers. The Enlightenment was a European movement in the 18th century where thinkers apply reason to all aspects of society. The philosophers that had the biggest impact on these documents were Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Beccaria, and Rousseau. The philosopher whose ideas were most effective during the revolutions was an English philosopher named John Locke. Locke had a direct impact on the French Revolution and the American Revolution.

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